Overture 圖形視窗鋼琴軸檢視
Piano Roll View

音樂五要素 弦律和聲 (和弦, 對位)、節奏配器曲式。 加上數位科技
和聲:自然音階數位音階調式音階藍調與特色調式
和弦:和弦分析代理和弦和弦進行提要終止與級進大小調進行轉調與藍調進行名曲和弦進行示範和弦進行綜合實作

圖形視窗最重要的就是提供鋼琴軸檢視,亦即以鋼琴鍵盤為列,表示音高,而以平行柱式的音圖,表現音值與複音間的彼此關係,並以小節區隔。

Windows> 開啟圖形視窗

本視窗主要為 2 個區格:Note Pane 音符區格,Controllers Pane 控制器區格。。

Note Pane 音符區格

Note Pane 音符區格主要控制時值表現,而 Controllers Pane 控制器區格最常用的是 Velocity 壓力表現。

頂端左方是工具列,右方顯示「最短音符」、與頻道。

時值表現

注意:鉛筆工具點音圖的左側,可移動音起始的位置;點右側,可修訂音的長度,以「擬人性化」,亦即可避免「刻板對齊」。 

The Note pane is full-size and the Controllers pane is hidden at the bottom. Drag the gray splitter bar up to display the Controllers pane.

Velocity Pane 壓力表現

真實樂器的Velocity 壓力表現,影響深遠。

這裡雖以「彈鍵」的手指壓力示意,但配合吹、拉、打…樂器,都有相同效果。

The duration of the notes will affect the thickness of the line of the velocity, therefore, affect the quality of the patch.

You want to use the pencil to modify the notes and the lines.

Velocity

Tool Bar 工具列

Selection tool 工具選擇

warning Warning: It is not suggested using this tool since it requires heavy resources. Use Pencil tool instead.

Pencil tool 鉛筆工具

Change the start time Drag the left edge of the note in either direction. The note duration stays the same, but the start time is shifted.
Change the pitch Drag the middle of the note up or down.
Change the duration Drag the right edge of the note in either direction.

Draw a custom curve indicating changes in controller value.

Line tool 線性工具

Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or decrease in controller value.

Erase tool 橡皮擦工具

Erase controller changes already in place.

Scrub tool 手動播放工具

Press and hold the left mouse button in the Graphics window. Overture displays a vertical line and plays any notes that are underneath the line.


Controllers Pane 控制器區格

The Controllers pane, the lower half of the Graphics window, lets you edit MIDI, controller, velocity, and pitch wheel data.

Controllers

鋼琴踏板

左上小白窗選“Control”,緊挨者的小白窗選“64-pedal(sustain)”,然後用小畫筆在下面的編輯區域點擊,點“0”以上的地方出現豎線,點 “0”以下的地方則出現小點,豎線表示踩踏板,小點表示放踏板。

波浪式顫音

左小白窗選“Control”,緊挨者的小白窗選“1-Modulation”,然後用畫筆在下面編輯區畫即可。這種音響適用於小提琴等樂器拖長音時的修飾。

彎音

左上小白窗選“Wheel”,然後用畫筆在下面編輯區畫即可。這種音響適用於模仿電吉他推弦技巧。

MIDI hardware and software use controllers, special types of events, to control the details of how MIDI music is played. They use automation data to adjust volume, pan, and other parameters of MIDI and audio tracks on the fly while playback is in progress. Overture lets you enter or edit controller and automation data using the Controllers pane in the Graphic window.

Controllers are the pedals, knobs, and wheels on your electronic instrument that you use to change the sound while you're playing. For example, a sustain pedal and a modulation wheel are two controllers commonly found on keyboards.

The Graphic window toolbar contains two drop-down lists, Data type and Controller, that let you choose the controller or data you want to see and edit. The contents of these lists depend on the port and channel settings and on the instrument assigned to that port and channel. Different instruments use controllers in different ways. Overture lets you use instrument definitions to define the names that go with each controller number.

Data Type

Overture lets you display and edit several other types of data the same way you do controller data. These data depend on your port and channel settings and on the instruments assigned to them. The may include, for example:

Velocity. MIDI note velocities
Wheel. MIDI pitch wheel or pitch-bend messages
ChanAft. MIDI channel aftertouch (ChanAft) values
Control. MIDI Controller values
Tempo. Song tempos

A MIDI keyboard responds in two ways to the player's touch on the keys. The first is velocity sensitivity. The faster the player presses a key down, the higher the velocity data produced. To the player, it feels like he or she is playing the keys harder, not faster, but the result is the same.

The velocity data is most commonly used to increase the level of the sound with harder playing, and also to increase the brightness of the sound, as would happen in an acoustic instrument.

Once a key is played and held down, there is also 'aftertouch', more properly known as 'pressure'. The player can exert more pressure on the key while it is down; this data is used to control typically a vibrato effect, level or perhaps brightness - it depends on how the tone generator is programmed.

But aftertouch or pressure works in two ways. One is 'channel pressure', where the keyboard senses the pressures of all of the keys held down and generates one set of data to cover them all. Usually this is the pressure of the hardest-pressed key.

So with channel pressure, you couldn't press one key hard and another gently and get different results for each key. Channel pressure covers the whole of the keyboard (or the whole of one MIDI channel).

Polyphonic pressure or aftertouch however works on individual keys. So all the subtleties of your playing are maintained, and if this data is used to control vibrato, then each note held down can have a different amount of vibrato.

The problem with polyphonic pressure is that it generates a tremendous amount of data. Even channel pressure generates a lot because it constantly changes. A pair of note-on and note-off messages comprises a mere six bytes, but channel pressure varies every time the player changes pressure on the keys. Polyphonic pressure multiplies this data by up to ten (ten fingers!).

The standard MIDI system can only transmit about 30 kilobits of data per second, and polyphonic pressure can easily push against this limit. Try adding more data, such as additional channels, and the whole of the MIDI data stream will slow down.

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同類別內相關主題

音樂美學

詞曲創作理論

Music Aesthetics

Song Composition Theory

音樂知識美學 TX Aesthetics of Music
  音樂格律的破立    Music Grammars & Creativity
  譜曲的美學探索   Case Study on TX Music Aesthetics
歌曲創作理論與
弦律分析
Composition Theory and
Melody Analysis of Songs
歌曲賞析 Comparative Analysis of Songs
歌劇賞析:莫札特 Analysis of Operas: Mozart
歌詞創作 Verse Analysis and Composition

樂理基礎

Fundaments

音樂要素/藝術與科技 Aspects of Music: Art vs. Tech
MIDI要素 Aspects of MIDI
基礎樂理 Music Grammar Basics
總譜:軟體與音源 Score of the Music: Overture and Synth
  Overture 記譜法‧頻道視窗設定     Digital Notation Methods‧Tracks Windows Settings 
  圖形視窗/琴軸檢視   Graphic Window/ Piano Roll View
  和弦視窗與和弦設定     Chords Window and Chord Input 
  歌詞視窗   Lyrics Window
  發音技巧   Articulations

編曲

Arrangement

曲式
Form Design
  多樂章曲式   Multi Movement Forms
  範例分析:給愛麗絲    Exam: Fur Elise  
和聲:共鳴與自然音階 Acoustic Music and Natural Scales
  調律與數位音階   Temperament and Digital Scales
  調與調式音階   Keys, Modes and Modal Scales
  顯波學與癒療音階   Cymatics, Kymatica and Medicinal  Scale
  藍調與特色調式音階   Blues and Genre Modes
  和弦分析   Chord Analysis
  代理/轉位/人聲和弦   Substitute, Inversed, Human Chords
  和弦進行提要   Chord Progression Design
  終止型與級進進行   Cadence and Stepwise Progression 
  大調/小調和弦進行   Major/ Minor Mode Chord Progression
  轉調‧藍調和弦進行   Modulation, Blues, Modal Chord Progression
  名曲和弦進行示範   Demos of Popular Works
  全曲和弦進行綜合設計與實作    Total Chord Progression Design and Practice 
  對位    Counterpoint Design
節奏/4拍 Rhythm Analysis and Design/ 4-Beat
   3拍/2拍/混合拍   3-Beat, 2-Beat, Fusion 
  節奏模組,節奏動感搖梗    Rhythm Patterns, Groove Rhythm 
  全曲節奏綜合設計與實作   Total Rhythm Design and Practice 
配器 Instrument Arrangement
  數位樂器   Digital Instruments
  音階樂器與 GM   Melodic Instruments and GM Patches
  打擊樂器與 GM   Percussion and General MIDI Patches
   TX 結構意涵取向配器法   TX Structural-Contextual Approach Instrumentation 
  創意配器:民族樂器   Creative Instrumentation: Ethnic
  創意配器:中華樂器   Creative Instrumentation: Chinese
  創意配器:中華現代樂器   Creative Instrumentation: Modern Chinese
  創意配器:演化樂器   Creative Instrumentation: Evolving
  創意配器:變身樂器   Creative Instrumentation: Transforming
  人聲樂器:聲樂   Vocal Instrumentation
  人聲樂器的變化   Variants of Vocal/ Human Voices
  全曲配器綜合設計與實作    Total Instrumentation Design and Practice 
襯音、即興與變奏 Fill in and ad lib Design
編曲收成與輔奏 Finishing up: Prelude, Interlude, Postlude
  編曲收成與輔奏綜合設計與實作    Total Finishing up Design and Practice
變格作曲與變格編曲 Alternative Composition Theory and Arrangement Methods 
演奏/創意與詮釋 Performance/Creative & Interpretive
音樂流派的知識分類法 Methodology for Genres Taxonomy
流派-音樂分佈圖/展示 Genre- Music Map/Demo

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MIDI製作

MIDI Production

Sonar 設定 Sonar Settings
錄音與後製-Midi Midi Editing & Post Production- Midi Notes
合成/轉化/輸出音軌 Bounce and Export
錄音與後製-數位聲音 Wave Editing & Post Production- Digital Audio
混音自動化 Mixing and Automation
等化與雜訊處理 Equalization
特效 Special Effect Featuring
總控與輸出 Mastering and Converting Output

範例練習

Demo & Exercise

統雄作品選 Selection of Sean TX Wu's Work
相逢 Encounter
媽媽的愛心 Mother's Love

進階論題

音樂與文化,科學,資訊科技

Advanced

Music and Culture, Science, Information Technology
音樂創作研究科學方法 Scientific Research Methods in Music Composition
音樂創作知識管理 Scientific Research Methods in Music Composition by Information Technology

數位音效

Digital Sound Effect

光碟標籤與包裝設計 Design of CD's Label and Package

實作與活動

Lab and Activities

臺大數位音樂實驗室 NTU Midi Lab
   實驗室發展歷程    Chronicle of NTU Midi Lab
吳統雄數位音樂 研究目錄 Listing of Research Papers by Sean TX Wu
吳統雄數位音樂作品目錄 Listing of Digital Music Works by Sean TX Wu