Context and Genres
4 Beats: Slow, Rock, Jazz, Latin, and Pops Family
節奏 Rhythm =
The following section is a brief introduction from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. When governed by rule, it is called meter. It is inherent in any time-dependent medium, but it is most associated with music, dance, and the majority of poetry. The study of rhythm, stress, and pitch in speech is called prosody; it is a topic in linguistics. All musicians, instrumentalists and vocalists, work with rhythm, but it is often considered the primary domain of drummers and percussionists.
In Western music, rhythms are usually arranged with respect to a time signature, partially signifying a meter. The speed of the underlying pulse, called the beat, is the tempo. The tempo is usually measured in 'beats per minute' (bpm); 60 bpm means a speed of one beat per second. The length of the meter, or metric unit (usually corresponding with measure length), is divided almost exclusively into either two or three beats, being called duple meter and triple meter, respectively. If each beat is further divided by two it is simple meter, if by three compound meter.
Some genres of music make different use of rhythm than others. Most Western music is based on divisive rhythm, while non-Western music uses more additive rhythm. African music makes heavy use of polyrhythms, and Indian music uses complex cycles such as 7 and 13, while Balinese music often uses complex interlocking rhythms. By comparison, a lot of Western classical music is fairly rhythmically simple; it stays in a simple meter such as 4/4 or 3/4 and makes little use of syncopation. In the 20th century, composers like Igor Stravinsky, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich wrote more rhythmically complex music using odd meters, and techniques such as phasing and additive rhythm. At the same time, modernists such as Olivier Messiaen and his pupils used increased complexity to disrupt the sense of a regular beat, leading eventually to the widespread use of irrational rhythms in New Complexity.
A rhythm section generally consists of percussion instruments, and possibly chordal instruments (e.g., guitar, banjo) and keyboard instruments, such as piano (which, by the way, may be classified as any of these three types of instruments).
Rhythms' Categories/Genres and Examples
Rhythms' categories are various, changing, without clear-cut definition, and could be perceived very personally.
Wu, TX wants to focus on the 'Songs' Rhythms', to conclude a simple and comprehensive frameworks, and to explain the category by the substantial differences of basic beats and tempos as follows. However, the practice could be more complicated than the examples.
X: Bass Drum/Side Kick -strong
x: Bass Drum/Side Kick -medium
-: Snare /Ride Cymbal/ Hi-hat
Bass Drum：是 concert bass drum 的簡稱，通常是西方古典樂團的標準樂器，以鼓棍敲打演奏，演奏技術較多。
Snare：小鼓，但當節奏快速短促時，經常使用 Ride Cymbal （最大片）或 Hi-hat （上下雙片）代替。
Slow Family 慢歌家族
Slow : X - - -, X - - -x
Blues：X - x - , X - x- -
Soul：X- -- x –
Slow Soul : X -x x -x, X -x xx -x
Folk：X x- x- X , - x- x- X
Slow Rock：--- --- --- --- , -0- --- -0- --- , 或更多創意切分，而其低音經常為： X-- --x X-- x-x
Rock / Boogie-Woogie / Jive Family 搖滾家族
Rock：X.- X.-, X -X 0 -
Hard Rock：X -X xx -
Heavy Metal： Xx -X Xx -X
8 Beats：X- X- X.x -x
16 Beats：---- ---- ---- ----
Funk：Xx-x Xx-0 X.x-x X0
Twist：Xx -- Xx --
Jazz / Swing Family 爵士家族
Jazz is a musical art form originally developed by African Americans from around the turn of the 20th century. It is characterized by blue notes, syncopation, swing, call and response, polyrhythms, and improvisation. As the first original art form to emerge from the United States of America, jazz has been described as "America's Classical Music".
swing rhythm is a convention that the half beats are played not equally as written, but with the first longer than the second and the shorter second note having an accent. Generally the first note of each of these pairs is twice as long as the second, giving a triplet feel. A rhythm that is not swung is called a straight rhythm.
Swing：X -0- x -, X - - -0-
Pop：X-- -- x -
Jitterbug (or East Coast Swing, with 6 count) / Jive / West Coast Swing: X - x –
Western / Folk：X- 0- 0- x
Country：X- x- xx -
Latin Family 拉丁家族
Latin (or Latin jazz) is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States.
The two main categories of Latin are Brazilian and Afro-Cuban.
There are other three famous Latin rhythms: Tango (short for Italian Tango), Argentina Tango and Flamenco.
Bossa Nova：X x- 0- 0
Samba : X0 -X X- -X
Rumba：X- 0- x – , X -- x- x-
Beguine：X - x- 0, X- 0- x- x-
Cha Cha：- - -- -
Tango：- - - -x
Argentina Tango : - -x - -
Flamenco : (triplet) - - X - - X - X - X - X
Soul / Funk / Disco Family 靈魂大家族
Disco：X x X x
R&B / Rap / Hip Hop Family 節奏藍調大家族