Color Psychology 色彩心理學


數位色彩系統與數位調色盤前置觀念:數位色彩系統與數位調色盤

配色程序的第一步是選擇主色,通常會參考「色彩心理學」。這裡的「主色」是指「色度」而言,而不包括彩度、亮度。後兩者視為主色的同一家族,作為增強主色多層次的效果。

其次是決定主色數目,最常用的是1-2色,通常少於4色,如果是4色,宜分為主、副2組。當然,在非常特殊的情況,也可以考慮5色以上。

配色會分為前後景,或前中後景色。

TX選色與四大配色定律則可提供不會失敗的配色方法。


Contexts of Colors 色彩的感受與意涵

美學就是使人知覺、使人感動之學而言,如何選擇色彩牽涉色彩心理學。

這方面的文獻很多,彼此衝突也很大,比較普遍的共識是在:

à 藍的光譜上,有:

暖、熱 à 寒、冷

感性 à 理性

的對比。

另有幾點較肯定的是:

每個色彩都有它的「正面感受」與「負面感受」。

色彩的感受會因社會相信、歷史文化、個人經驗有所不同,但也會存在區域內相似感。

代表性色彩的心理意涵反射

以下是整理國際文獻,可能相對較普遍代表性色彩的心理反射與色彩文化意涵,如下表。

色彩 正面感受 負面感受

暖熱,感性,激情,力量,能量,火,愛,性,興奮,速度,領導力,權力,行動,陽剛之氣

危險,禁止,火災,血災,戰爭,憤怒,抗爭,偏激,野心,奢華

寒冷,理性,冷靜,穩定,和諧,冰,海,天,信任,溝通,可靠性,潔淨,慎思,科技氣息

蕭條,空洞,冷酷,寒害,冷戰,無情,陰謀,平淡,退縮,悶騷

自然,青春,富饒,環保,財富,草,木,生機,幸運,慷慨

廉價,嫉妒,仇恨,銅臭,貪婪,疾病

歡樂,幸福,樂觀,理想,財富,陽光,希望

懦夫,危機,虛偽,貪心,不滿,軟弱,傳染病

溫暖,有力,平衡,熱誠,華麗,太陽,佛教

侵略,驕傲,偏激,衝動,警示,華而不實

性靈,創意,皇家,貴族,慶典,神秘,學識,啟發

傲慢,偏見,魔幻,悲愴,褻瀆,誇張,困惑

懷舊,傳統,耐久,不變,質感,木材,皮革,沉穩

粗鄙,莽撞,頑固,平凡,貧窮,污垢,糞土,粗糙

純潔,尊重,簡易,安全,人性,和平,雪花,婚姻

恐懼,膽小,投降,診療,不孕,冰冷,缺乏想像力

優雅,人道,莊重,沉穩,細緻,永恆,智慧

獨斷,無聊,衰老,腐朽,污染,乏味,混沌

現代酷感,強權,成熟,拘謹禮節,財富,隱秘風格

恐怖意識,罪惡,死亡,匿名行為,悲傷,懺悔,邪惡

Here are, relatively, some common cultural connotations attached to colors:

Color Positives Negatives

Gray

Elegance, humility, respect, reverence, stability, subtlety, timelessness, wisdom

Anachronism, boredom, decay, decrepitude, dullness, dust, pollution, urban sprawl

Red

Passion, strength, energy, fire, love, sex, excitement, speed, heat, leadership, masculinity, power

Danger, fire, gaudiness, blood, war, anger, revolution, radicalism, aggression, stop

Blue

Seas, skies, peace, unity, harmony, tranquility, calmness, coolness, confidence, water, ice, loyalty, conservatism, dependability, cleanliness, technology, winter

Depression, coldness, idealism, obscenity, ice, tackiness, winter

Green

Nature, spring, fertility, youth, environment, wealth, money (US), good luck, vigor, generosity, go, grass

Aggression, inexperience, envy, misfortune, jealousy, money, illness, greed

Yellow

Sunlight, joy, happiness, optimism, idealism, wealth (gold), summer, hope, air

Cowardice, illness (quarantine), hazards, dishonesty, avarice, dissatisfaction, weakness

Purple

Sensuality, spirituality, creativity, wealth, royalty, nobility, ceremony, mystery, wisdom, enlightenment

Arrogance, flamboyance, gaudiness, mourning, profanity, exaggeration, confusion

Orange

Buddhism, energy, balance, heat, fire, enthusiasm, flamboyance, playfulness

Aggression, arrogance, flamboyance, gaudiness, overemotion, warning, danger, fire

White

Reverence, purity, snow, peace, innocence, cleanliness, simplicity, security, humility, marriage, winter

Coldness, sterility, clinicism, surrender, cowardice, fearfulness, winter, unimaginative

Black

Modernity, power, sophistication, formality, elegance, wealth, mystery, style

Evil, death, fear, anonymity, anger, sadness, remorse, mourning, unhappiness, mystery

Brown

Calm, depth, natural organisms, nature, richness, rusticism, stability, tradition

Anachronism, boorishness, dirt, dullness, filth, heaviness, poverty, roughness


Cultural Differences 色彩心理意涵文化間差異

以上的「色感」在不同文化、不同地區、不同社會事件影響期間,仍然會有差異。

譬如,歐洲通常以紫色代表皇家,貴族,而唐宋後,為中華文化影響的亞洲國家、地區,常以黃色代表皇家,貴族。不過,孔子曾經說過:「惡紫之奪朱」,可見在春秋戰國時代,皇家,貴族的代表色也是紫色、或紅色。

這裡也有一點小的知識美學題目:因為紫色並不是「自然光譜色」,自古以來,要整染紫色,就是比較困難與稀少的工藝,所以中西古代的皇家,貴族,都會以紫色作為代表色?而孔子討厭紫色,是否也是因為自然經驗中的「不純」?

西方以白色作喜慶婚禮,黑色作哀悼喪禮;中華與印度是以紅色作喜慶婚禮,相反的以白色作哀悼喪禮。

色彩也常會與區域的政治或意識型態結合,在歐洲,黑色是保守主義,紅色是社會主義,褐色是納粹主義,而綠色是環保主義。

在當前臺灣,藍、綠,乃至橙與紅色,也各有政治涵意,只是和歐洲不同。

雖然每種色彩都有它的正面、與負面感受,但跨文化比較下來,藍色是最被接受,認同正面意義多於負面的色彩。從知識美學來看,可能與它的波長但短,穩定性最高有關。

而黑色是最被爭議,認同負面意義多於正面的色彩。從知識美學來看,可能與它不具「色度」、不具「彩度」、也不具「亮度」有關,而較易產生一切絕滅的聯想。

Various cultures see color differently. In India, blue is associated with Krishna (a very positive association), green with Islam, red with purity (used as a wedding color) and brown with mourning. In most Asian cultures, yellow is the imperial color with many of the same cultural associations as purple in the west. In China, red is symbolic of celebration, luck and prosperity; white is symbolic of mourning and death, while green hats mean a man's wife is cheating on him. In Europe colors are more strongly associated with political parties than they are in the U.S. In many countries black is synonymous with conservatism, red with socialism, while brown is still immediately associated with the Nazis. Many believe that blue is universally the best color as it has the most positive and fewest negative cultural associations across various cultures.

Studies have shown most colors have more positive than negative associations, and even when a color has negative association, it is normally only when used in a particular context.

People in many cultures have an automatic negative perception of the color black, according to some researchers. Thomas Gilovich and Mark Frank found that sports teams with primarily black uniforms were significantly more likely to receive penalties in historical data. Students were more likely to infer negative traits from a picture of a player wearing a black uniform. They also taped staged football matches, with one team wearing black and another wearing white. Experienced referees were more likely to penalize black-wearing players for nearly identical plays. Finally, groups of students tended to prefer more aggressive sports if wearing black shirts themselves.


數位色彩系統與數位調色盤

TX選色與四大配色定律

數位繪圖/數位美工設計

色彩設計實作:圖片輪廓配色 

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